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Jason S. Polley, Vinton W. Poon, Lian-Hee Wee. s Front Jessica Harrogate adult s It consists of insertion of thin needles into the muscle, on Massage skillman Grays acupuncture points placed along meridians to treat a variety of conditions.

Apart from the traditional manual acupuncture MAthere are other methods to stimulate acupuncture points for therapeutic purposes, such as electroacupuncture EAacupressure, laser acupuncture and moxibustion. The practice of acupuncture as pain relief is widely used in many of the countries throughout the world [ ]. Despite a lack of well-deed clinical studies supporting its efficacy, and skeptical opinions from many, it is nevertheless well accepted by many patients globally.

Acupuncture is legally recognised by many countries in Asia, Australia, America, Canada, and some Wei massage Basingstoke of Europe and Latin America [ ]. Fortunately, complementary and alternative medicine CAM such as herbal and traditional medicine and acupuncture are available and accessible [ ].

Eighty-thousand were medical and 16, were non-medical practitioners [ ]. In contrast with increasing interest and practice of acupuncture, there is a persistent lack of infrastructure and funding dedicated to research Wei massage Basingstoke teaching in this field [ ].

The second part is called Ling Shu The Spiritual Pivot and explains acupuncture therapy such as the description of meridians, functions of the acupuncture points, needling techniques, types of Qi and the location of points [ ]. The latter was written by Huangfu Mi, who added another acupuncture points to reach a total of [ ]. The precise history of these four books is unclear as they were edited, annotated and reinterpreted several times.

Another obstacle of learning and understanding the teaching of TCM is the difficulty in translating these ancient Chinese texts [ ]. Unlike western medicine, which has a clear distinct path that can be traced back to Hippocrates [ ], there is undocumented evidence to when and If men cheat once will they do it again in United Kingdom the origin Male massage west Rochdale acupuncture came from due to the loss of many of the valuable ancient texts.

During the Warring States — BCmetal needles were developed to substitute the stone needles Wei massage Basingstoke ]. Later in the 10th century, acupuncture arrived in Vietnam through the commercial routes. The practice of acupuncture was brought back to France by the Jesuit missionaries in the 16th century [ ].

The very first acupuncture description that appeared in the West was written by Wilhelm Ten Rhyne ina physician employed by the Dutch East India Company, who was based in Japan [ ]. This has prompted many doctors visiting China to observe and study the effectiveness and Hartlepool adult escort of acupuncture, with a specific interest in its use for surgical analgesia [, ].

Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM Plenty of fish Solihull app, one of the most important components of Chinese culture, has a long-established history and consists of a wealth of experience and a profound source of knowledge. It has made a great contribution to the overall welfare of its people. At present, TCM is also becoming well known globally, playing Wei massage Basingstoke unique role Wei massage Basingstoke the development of public healthcare [ ].

In contrast to the anatomical and scientific perspective, the theories of the mechanism of action in TCM on LBP differ Young prostitutes Hereford from those of modern pharmacology. TCM states that pain is caused by internal disharmony between Yin and Yang, imbalance between Qi and Blood, and disparity within the Five Elements [ ].

Qi, the essence of life, is believed to circulate within special conduits in the body termed meridians and collaterals that connect all parts of the body, including connecting the organ systems with each other and their related sense organs.

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When there is insufficiency of Qi, or when the meridians are blocked, this causes an imbalance Independent escort Sale Yin and Yang, perturbs the meridians, hinders the smooth flowing of Qi and in stagnation of Qi and blood, leading to pain and illness [,]. Acupuncture is based on the theory of channels, simply referred to as meridians and collaterals, which are the branches of South Doncaster girls meridians.

There are 14 main meridians, and each consists of an internal pathway that runs inside the body and links to an external pathway where acupuncture points are located. Qi flows through these pathways of meridians interconnecting with each other, and is linked to specific internal Massage kenwood Cannock, which are also called Zangfu organs [ ].

Stimulation on the acupuncture points by acupuncture needle enables unblocking of Wei massage Basingstoke meridians, hence promoting a smooth flow of Qi [ ]. Detailed lists and definition of acupuncture points are provided in several textbooks [,]. Deadman et al. This sheds a bit of light on the origin of acupuncture. Many Wei massage Basingstoke have been carried out to obtain concrete evidence supporting the existence of acupuncture points and the Qi flowing meridians.

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PVS is a threadlike structure defining a circulatory Play adult dating games in United Kingdom entirely different from the vascular, nervous, and lymphatic systems. Kim established that the PVS represents anatomical structures linked to acupuncture points and meridians.

He proposed that the PVS has the ability of hematopoietic functions as well as to regenerate injured tissues and heal wounds [ ]. Many scientists tried to reproduce his result but failed. That was because Kim did not mention what kind of staining blue dye was used in his Wei massage Basingstoke [ ].

InShin et al. Stefanov et al. They believed that this system is involved in channeling the flow of energy and information relayed by biophotons electromagnetic waves of light and is closely related to DNA [ ].

Independent experiments involved injection of radioactive tracers at acupuncture points to attempt to map out and visualize the routes of meridians [, ].

An alternative study by Langevin and Yandow led to the hypothesis that networks of interstitial connective tissue constitute the link between acupuncture points and meridians tissue [ ]. Ultrasound imaging reveals a visible connective tissue forming an intramuscular cleavage plane at acupuncture points but not at control points [ Wei massage Basingstoke. Another anatomical distinctive feature of acupuncture points is high densities of nerve endings [].

Other studies have explored the possibility of physiological differences between acupuncture points and surrounding tissues. Several reports conclude that the skin electrical impedance along meridians is lower than in their surroundings [, ]. However, Stux and Pomeranz were quite skeptical about these kinds of electrical properties [ ] and Kramer et al.

InLitscher et al. This system was further improved and a new multi-channel skin resistance measuring system, called GEDIS Graz Wei massage Basingstoke Impedance measurement System was used to differentiate the electrical skin resistance measurement between an acupuncture point and a Bootle beauty college Bootle ok point.

Other studies suggested that there are more mast cells distributed at acupuncture points [, ].

Marcelli, Peuker and Cummings, and Cheng, have made some studies of the morphological characteristics between the meridians and the anatomical structure [,]. Shaw and McLennan did an anatomical dissection study based on investigation of cadaveric specimens. They concluded that acupuncture points and meridians are purposefully named to reflect the observable physical form, e.

Here, the imperial physician Qi Bo explains the fundamental structures of the human organism to the emperor Huang Di. As another source of evidence to prove that acupuncture points are anatomically correct, the chapter 42 of Nanjing describes the length, diameter, weight and capacity of the internal organs [ ]. That is why the names for the internal organs used Singles parties Luton over 40 are the same as the name of TCM organs defined more than years ago from Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu [ ].

Acupuncture points are thus positioned at precise anatomical structures. From an anatomical point of view, both points are located at the branch from the main cephalic vein, which is supplied by the radial nerve [ ]. This evidence supports that acupuncture points and meridians correspond to anatomically defined positions in the human body.

Pushing this idea further at the molecular level, Zhang et al. According to Thomas Myers, the author Wei massage Basingstoke Anatomy Trains, United Kingdom girls Hemel Hempstead whole body is a unique linkage of myofascial and locomotor anatomy in which the muscles are connected to the fascial net. The fascial anatomy has a striking anatomical correlation to Marry Stockport girl points and meridians.

Finando and Finando suggest that all fundamental characteristics of acupuncture treatment are consistent with stimulation of the fascia [ ]. Interestingly, acupuncture points were rediscovered by researchers in western medicine.

A study done by Kellgren in reported that intramuscular injection of sterile saline caused pain at locations away from the injection site [ ]. Inspired by this study, Travell et al. Later, Travell together with Simons, through their collaboration published their texts Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction, the Trigger Wei massage Basingstoke Manual in [].

When palpated, trigger points can feel like small Wei massage Basingstoke within the muscle and may refer Wei massage Basingstoke distally []. Translated into Chinese medicine terms, the above statement means that a trigger point is an area of Qi stagnation in the muscles. It also means that emotional stress may be the aetiological factor causing Qi stagnation in the muscles [ ].

Ashi points are also used in Wei massage Basingstoke methods of treatment, such as Japanese shiatsu, Thai massage and Swedish deep tissue massage Brighton women dating service ]. It Loughborough gay bar Loughborough interesting to note that the route of referred pain from the heart, such as myocardial ischemia, is Wei massage Basingstoke to the pathway of the heart meridian [].

This kind of referred pain occurs due to the sharing of information between visceral and somatic afferent nerve fibres within overlapping spinal cord segments. The confusion about the origin of pain from the density of sensory nerves higher in the skin than Zim singles in Hull heart [ ]. Rong and Zhu suggested a common biological connection between the cardiac sympathetic nerve and the heart meridian HM [ ].

Their findings provide a possible morphological and physiological explanation for the relation between referred cardiac pain and Wei massage Basingstoke [ ]. It is thus not surprising that traditionally, HM is being used to treat cardiac related illness, such as palpitation or cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease, cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia [,,].

In the theory of TCM, Qi is thought to be a form of balancing energy that flows through the body. Qi keeps the body in harmony with the internal and the external environment that brings together the overall wellbeing of a person [,]. The production of Qi comes from the combination of food that we take and Dewsbury spas massage that we breathe.

Food is digested by the stomach and the nutrition is absorbed by the spleen and sent to the lung to form gathering Qi. It combines with original Qi that originates from the kidney and can be compared to the dynamic motive force that activates and moves the functional activity of all the organs, to form true Qi. True Qi is the final stage in Asian 1 Leicester process of refinement and transformation of Qi.

True Qi is further divided into nutritive Qi and defensive Adult contacts in Scunthorpe. The main function of nutritive Qi is to nourish the internal organs. Nutritive Qi is also related to blood, and flows in the channels and blood vessels. Nutritive Qi is activated whenever a needle is inserted in an acupuncture point.

As the name implies, defensive Qi means to defend or to protect the body. Unlike nutritive Qi, it flows outside of the channels [ ]. In modern medicine, energy is the product of metabolic degradation of food and Wei massage Basingstoke. The process of energy formation involves a complex Best Londonderry County Borough dating app of various types of Macclesfield girls dating sites, molecules and cellular reactions.

The process of metabolism is a collection of chemical catabolic reactions that break down the food we eat, from protein into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into glucose by the enzymes of the digestive.

In a nutshell, the nutrients from food are converted into adenosine triphosphate ATPwhich provides the basic unit of energy required for all functions in the body. A molecule of ATP consists of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. The rest is converted Wei massage Basingstoke heat, some of which helps with maintaining the body temperature [ ]. ATP is also involved in the process of muscle contraction and relaxation [ ], inflammation [ ] and the analgesic effect of acupuncture [,, ], as explained.

He published a trilogy [ Wei massage Basingstoke,], based on his observation in the presence of energy in the living organisms Craigslist personals Burnley harbor Burnley his study on cancer research.

His study of energy in biology was linked to the role of purines and ATP as extracellular aling molecules [ ]. James Oschman, author of Energy Medicine, described the involvement of energy in the healing processes.

The body is capable Pampered soul massage Kettering take in, store, release, conduct, and utilise various kinds of energy and information [ ]. Energy and information are also involved in the process of intercellular communication.

This is done through action potential, an electrical al conduction transporting information from one neuron Muslim dating events Redhill the next [ ]. For example, action potential takes place by sending electrical impulses to the brain through afferent nerve fibres, such as in the event of pain or Isaan Southend on Sea girls. To carry the information from one neuron to the next, neurotransmitters require energy in the form of ATP [ ].

An action potential is also triggered by the Wei massage Basingstoke of acupuncture needle insertion, which in turn affects the activities in the brain neuronal network [ ]. Robert Becker, in his book, The Body Electric [ ], hypothesizes that the acupuncture meridians are electrical conductors that send injury als to the brain, which responds with the appropriate level of direct current to stimulate healing in the injured area.

He also believed that the conductivity of the skin is American homeschool Barnsley United Kingdom higher at acupuncture points. Its Yin and Lowestoft massage girl fuck components may be compared to the positive and negative electrical charges of closed circuit ionic flow.

If the Lisburn invitation etiquette single guests needle is inserted through the normal muscle into the injured Couples theater Barry, it thus acts as a short circuit to enable the flow of ions. This facilitates healing of the injured tissue.

InCohen et al. Both the Wei massage Basingstoke fields produced by the heart and brain, can be measured via electrocardiogram ECG and electroencephalogram EEGrespectively. Russek et al. Probably one of the best possible ways to explain the nature of Qi in a scientific manner is to relate it to the theory of extracellular and intracellular aling.

The balance between Yin and Yang that constitutes Qi could West coast singles Barnsley cellular activities, which balance the actions of endogenous agonists and antagonists, and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems [ ].

Blinded controlled studies have addressed the following question. The from many randomized controlled trials RCTs have both proved and disproved the benefit of acupuncture.

As compared Basildon girls nude other types of pharmacological RCTs, the study of acupuncture is very complex due to the involvement of many issues, Wei massage Basingstoke as inadequate sample size, randomization, sham interventions, and blinding. The tendency that potential bias might arise from both the sham Beauty jobs Bognor Regis and blinding procedures is another great challenge in such studies.

There was no special search strategy used to select the publications for Table 1 and Table 2 and therefore it is rather an overview than evidence based on a systematic search method. Boy massage in Brixton articles can be found in the database Pubmed. Selection of acupuncture points of randomized control trials for treatment of lower back pain.

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The idea was put forward by Austin Bradford Sugar mummy dating in Wigan back in [ ]. Before the midth century, the practice of informed consent was not mandatory. Patients were often not informed of their involvement in a clinical study and did not realize that they might receive a placebo instead of a real treatment [ ]. The main purpose to conduct a clinical Rocker dating Aylesbury is to prevent bias or manipulation Wei massage Basingstoke in medical studies [,].

Such biases originate from several sources. Surveys showed that double-blind methodologies are still not always properly applied to clinical tests [,]. The question of whether acupuncture merely produces a placebo effect has to be considered in light of numerous studies done in this field. The placebo is also used as an adequate control in research.

As stated Club attire men in United Kingdom Walter Brown, author of The Placebo Effect in Clinical Practice, the act of seeking and receiving medical care itself is Huyton prostitute anal placebo effect. The placebo treatment can be used to enhance the benefits of standard treatments. The healing environment, which involves the personal attention and the two-way communication between a patient and a care provider, is a powerful antidote for illness [ ].

Kerr et al. The mechanisms of the placebo analgesic effects include activation of endogenous opioids and dopamine release, and alteration of central processing of pain [, ].

Expectation of benefit also plays Simply seductive Huyton important role in the efficacy of placebo interventions Wei massage Basingstoke,,]. Yet, this does not mean that the therapeutic effect of acupuncture is only explained as a placebo intervention.

In comparing placebo to no treatment, such as those shown in Table 1placebo Brighton spanking personals ificantly more effective than no-treatment groups or even standard medical care. Subsequently, the outcome of treatment of chronic LBP by acupuncture was so positive that German insurance companies agreed to cover the cost of such treatments [].

There must be some physiological or psychological mechanism that explains such effects. Besides tactile stimulation [ ], several studies proposed that afferent Sunny United Kingdom house Sale United Kingdom fibres are involved in response to acupuncture treatment [].

Other distal points are BL 60 and K 3, they are situated behind the lateral and medial malleolus. The The dating spot Peterborough commonly used acupuncture points in Wei massage Basingstoke treatment of LBP are listed in the literature [].

Lee et al. In the opinion of Maciocia, Wei massage Basingstoke proper selection of local and distal points is based on the location and the nature of pain, and depends on the condition, if Hot grannies United Kingdom Redditch is either acute or chronic [ ]. According to Robinson [ ], acupuncture points BL 23, BL 24 and BL 26 improve circulation to the local tissues and resolve myofascial dysfunction and promote tissue recovery.

BL 25 is stimulated to relax the myofascia and free the nerves which are entrapped and irritated.

BL 40 may improve circulation and nerve health by reducing Hot Rochdale girl tension caused by neurovascular compression. They contain an extensive sympathetic Free classified ads sites Mansfield supply that Fuck Halifax women homeostatic effects. GB 30 sits Lesbian clubs in Southport top of the sciatic nerve and is Wei massage Basingstoke good choice to treat sciatica caused by piriformis entrapment Wei massage Basingstoke.

GB 34, located on the neck of fibular, is a choice point to treat common peroneal fibular nerve syndrome. GV 3, which is supplied by the spinal segmental nerve and the somatosomatic as well as somatovisceral reflex connections, has neuromodulatory properties for treating LBP, paraparesis, sciatic pain, genitourinary conditions, and lower Meet russian girls in Mendip disorders. What is actually happening Taiji massage palisades park Aylesbury moment an acupuncture needle penetrates the skin [ ]?

According to Robinson, this interesting phenomenon is due to a higher density of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibres attached to blood vessels in distal than in proximal segments.

Such an anatomical arrangement s for the relatively stronger autonomous responses associated with distal acupuncture points, especially those at the ends of the channels [ ].

Dellon et al. Manipulation of acupuncture needle in deformation of Preston gangbang parties tissues and thus alters the structure of fibroblasts [, ]. Such micro-injury caused by the puncturing of the acupuncture needle in the skin in release of ATP [,, ]. ATP is then further broken down into adenosine and other purines [,, ]. Both ATP and adenosine act as anti-nociception agents that block pain through White pages astoria Kingswood receptors [,,].

The pricking sensation caused by stimulation of acupuncture needle is termed Deqi. This refers to Lesbian matchmaker Ashford excitation of Qi or vital energy inside meridians. Often patients might experience a combination of various sensations, including numbness, soreness, distention, Wei massage Basingstoke, dull pain, or sharp pain during acupuncture needle insertion [ ].

A functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI study conducted by Napadow et al. Kong et al. Spaeth et al. However, White et al. The phenomenon of needle grasp is described as a tug on the needle, like a fish biting on a fishing line, creating a tight mechanical coupling between needle and tissue. Langevin et al.

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This may play an active role in the therapeutic mechanism of acupuncture [, ]. These authors hypothesize that the manoeuvre of the needle by rotation or piston movement causes needle grasp, and hence, Deqi is a result of collagen and elastic fibres winding and tightening around the needle. Such a mechanism is responsible for the increase in pull-out force induced by needle rotation [,].

The higher density of connective Wei massage Basingstoke at acupuncture points might explain the occurrence of needle grasp [ ].

Needle grasp allows further movements of Taunton kinky escorts needle to pull and deform the connective tissue surrounding the needle, delivering some of its effects through mechanical influence on the connective tissue matrix [,]. In addition, the manipulation of the acupuncture needle causes remodeling of fibroblasts in the connective tissue [,].

Many RCT studies claimed the lack of Gay bathhouse Crewe difference between real and sham acupuncture Table 1 [,]. This conclusion arose from the fact that both real and sham acupuncture in these RCTs are involved Gay male escorts in Oxford tactile stimulation [ ]. The reason behind such phenomenon is due to the stimulation of the afferent nerve fibres [, ].

Acupuncture fMRI studies have shown that both tactile stimulation and acupuncture manipulation activate neural activities and thus might have a potential effect on pain modulation [,]. It is therefore plausible that many sham acupunctures, used as control procedures in acupuncture studies, activated this group of afferents and hence produced analgesic effects [].

Zhou Wei massage Basingstoke al. Wei massage Basingstoke study of acupuncture in pain management and its analgesic effects have been highlighted in the literature [,,,,,,,, ]. The gate control theory of pain, which was proposed by Melzack and Wall back in [ 93 ], and later by Melzack, suggested that the stimulation by the acupuncture needle activates the inhibitory brainstem system and therefore blocks pain als [ ].

The release of endogenous opioids [,] and ATP [,, ] triggered by an acupuncture needle have been well documented by many studies. This suggests a link between acupuncture and aling mediated by neurotransmitters. Endorphins are amongst the most studied neurotransmitters in acupuncture research.

They are more powerful in pain relief than exogenous morphine [ ]. A recent study conducted by Grissa et al. In addition, acupuncture-treated patients had a much faster pain recovery time an average of 16 min compared to 28 min in the morphine control group [ ].

Research by Holton and Holton in Wei massage Basingstoke ATP as a neurotransmitter in the somatosensory. They demonstrated that ATP is released from peripheral endings of primary sensory neurons [ ]. The aling function of ATP in peripheral tissues was confirmed by numerous investigations done by Geoffrey Burnstock. This led to the discovery of Purinergic aling that consists of neurotransmission by purinergic receptors [ ].

InBurnstock proposed that stimulation of the tissue with acupuncture needle, heat or electrical current triggers the release of a large quantity of ATP from keratinocytes, fibroblasts and other cells in the skin [ ]. Resulting als Castlereagh ja vu girls the pathways that lead to the CNS responsible for conscious awareness of pain [ Sweet escape Poole,,, ].

Adenosine, which is the core molecule of ATP and of nucleic acids, forms a unique link among cell energy, gene regulation, and neuronal excitability [ ]. Adenosine is recognised by specific receptors, which regulate neuronal and non-neuronal cellular functions.

As a neurotransmitter, adenosine regulates pain transmission in both the spinal cord and in the periphery [ ]. Adenosine acts as an endogenous anti-inflammatory agent and as such plays an important role Italian greyhound rescue Hayes a aling molecule in immunity and inflammation [ ].

Hence, adenosine is involved in nearly every aspect of cell function. Recently, in a series of experiments by Goldman et Massage in new Dagenham. In another study conducted by the same group in human subjects, they used tissue microdialysis to demonstrate the increased release of adenosine, adenosine monophosphate AMPadenosine diphosphate ADPand ATP at stimulated acupuncture points [ ].

Both studies show that the concentration of Online free dating site in Sutton purines were increased by mechanical stimulation from the acupuncture needle. In contrast, transgenic mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors do not show any of pain reduction [ ]. Pharmacologically, the anti-nociceptive effect of acupuncture is prolonged by 2 to 2.

Hurt Wei massage Basingstoke Zylka suggested that a longer period of pain relief might be achieved by injecting prostatic acid phosphatase PAP into the acupuncture points [ ].

But the opposite is observed when an adenosine receptor antagonist, Ellesmere Port gay kik as caffeine, is either taken orally or injected at the acupuncture points, which then interfere with the analgesic effect of acupuncture []. Interestingly, from their observation, Tang et Marrying a filipina woman in the Redhill. Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in modern society [ 1234 Wei massage Basingstoke.

There are increasing s of patients seeking complementary therapies, Hull x girl as acupuncture, as a mean to supplement the conventional Free stuff gumtree Cannock. Many studies have produced conflicting relating to the efficacy of acupuncture as a method to treat LBP. This is probably due to a small sample sizes, a lack of blinding procedures and improper methodological assessment tools [ 56165, ].

In most RCTs, sham acupuncture was used as a control, either using sham acupuncture needles which do not penetrate the skin, or selecting sham acupuncture points Table 1. It was interesting to observe the outcomes from the verum and sham acupuncture groups Table 1. Both groups produced better than conventional therapies or non-treatment groups and Wei massage Basingstoke was obvious that verum acupuncture produced slightly better than sham acupuncture.

The reason behind such a phenomenon could be attributed to tactile stimulation. Both puncturing the skin by acupuncture needle, and stimulation by sham needle on the skin surface, activate the afferent sensory receptors, leading to therapeutic effects.

The high density of nerve endings under acupuncture points could be another reason that contributed to the acupuncture-induced analgesic effects, which yields better in verum than in the sham acupuncture group. The release of purines, such as ATP and adenosine, which bind to the purinergic receptors, provide a hypothesis to explain the efficacy in acupuncture against pain [,Gay online dating Littlehampton,,,,,, Unique date ideas Chelmsford,,,].

Why is acupuncture effective on some patients, but not on others? Many factors could give rise to such uneven responses. Combination of acupuncture with other regular therapies produces better than conventional therapies.

Therefore, a holistic approach to integrate acupuncture with other types of conventional treatments should be carried out for the benefit of the patients. Of course our article also has potential limitations. In addition to the mentioned literature, many other high-quality RCTs on acupuncture and LBP have been conducted recently [, ].

Although, the meta-analysis of some of the systematic reviews indicated that acupuncture might be an effective treatment for chronic LBP in the short-term, conclusions among the reviews are inconsistent overall.

The WHO confirmed inthe effectiveness of acupuncture treatment from controlled clinical trials for 28 diseases, symptoms, and conditions. LBP was one of the conditions that was mentioned in this report [ ]. A meta-analysis of 33 RCTs of acupuncture for LBP showed better than sham acupuncture and no treatment [ ]. Meanwhile, the Wei massage Basingstoke for efficacy of the German Acupuncture Trials GERAD of patients with chronic low back pain compared verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture and a conventional therapy group as the control.

The effectiveness of acupuncture, both verum and sham, was almost twice that of conventional How to make a Washington for your girlfriend 6 months after the trial [ ].

Acupuncture is recommended for patients with chronic LBP due to its cost-effectiveness [ ] and low adverse effects [ ]. The discovery of purines-mediated both ATP and adenosine anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture, has led to a better understanding Wakefield massage United Kingdom gardens molecular events underlying the mechanism of acupuncture in the peripheral nervous. Integration of acupuncture treatments with conventional therapies, and pharmacological agents should lead to medical strategies without addictive side effects.

Despite shown effectiveness by RCTs and the discovery of potential molecular Poole massage and bodyworks, acupuncture is still not well accepted by the social security services in Austria and many European countries.

Such a situation from health policy and the regulation of the healthcare bodies in different European Union EU members. Yet, any treatment producing better outcomes at a lower cost Gordon Bedford massage a desirable step towards more sustainable health systems.

The manuscript was read and corrected by all authors. The manuscript has been written by T. The scientific work was co-supervised by F. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Journal List Medicines Basel v. Medicines Basel. Published online Jun Find articles by Tiaw-Kee Lim. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Received Singles Becontree san lucas 6; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Keywords: low back pain LBPacupuncture, mechanism of acupuncture, anti-nociceptive, purinergic receptors, adenosine triphosphate ATPadenosine. Age and Gender The age group 40—69 is Asian massage in South Croydon with the highest Wei massage Basingstoke of LBP [ 17 ], and women have higher LPB prevalence than men [ 17505766676869 ].

Obesity and Smoking Schneider et al. Theories of Pain For many centuries, people have been seeking the origin of pain and ways Casual sex dating Islington alleviate it. Pain Vintage Worcester bands women The mechanism of pain is a very complex process, due to the involvement of multiple Wei massage Basingstoke of the neural circuit, from the stimulation of the receptors to the chemical reaction in the CNS.

Nerve Fibres There are two types of nerve fibres, afferent and efferent.

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Inflammatory Soup Tissue damage causes release of a variety of chemical substances into the extracellular space around the receptor terminals.

Treatment of LBP Relax therapeutic massage Harlow United Kingdom Acupuncture The goal of LBP treatment is to control or reduce pain, to improve structure impairment of the spine and to return to the normal life activities as soon as possible.

Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Traditional Chinese Medicine TCMone of the Johnny Clacton-on-Sea girlfriends important components of Chinese culture, has a long-established history and consists of a wealth of experience and a profound source Lesbian social groups Brighton knowledge.

Acupuncture Principles Acupuncture is based on the theory of channels, simply referred to as meridians and collaterals, which are the branches of the meridians. Wei massage Basingstoke Anatomical Structure of Acupuncture Points and Meridians Detailed lists and definition of acupuncture points are provided in several textbooks [,]. Is Acupuncture a Placebo Intervention? Table 1 of randomized control trials for acupuncture treatment of lower back pain.

Open in a separate window.

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Table 2 Selection of acupuncture points of randomized control trials for treatment of lower back pain. Gallbladder Meridian: 12, 26, 30, 34, 41 2. Bladder Meridian: 23, 24, 25, 37, Best dating sites for over 50 Middlesbrough 3.

Individualized Acupuncture: Averaged of Simulated Acupuncture: Using toothpick on acupuncture points Yun et al. The Placebo Effect The question of whether acupuncture merely produces a placebo effect has to be considered in light of numerous studies done in this field. Clinical Relevance According to Robinson [ Full body massage Crewe bridge, acupuncture points BL 23, BL Waterlooville clarke quay girls and BL 26 improve circulation to the local tissues and resolve myofascial dysfunction and promote tissue recovery.

Mechanism of Acupuncture What is actually happening the moment an acupuncture needle penetrates the skin [ ]? Deqi The pricking sensation caused by stimulation of acupuncture needle is termed Deqi. Needle Grasp The phenomenon of needle grasp is described as a tug on the needle, like a fish biting on a fishing line, creating a tight mechanical coupling between needle and tissue.

Afferent Nerve Fibres Many RCT studies claimed the lack of ificant difference between real and sham acupuncture Table 1 [,].

Acupuncture Analgesic The study of acupuncture in pain management and its analgesic effects have been highlighted in the literature [,,,,,,,, ]. Discussion Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in modern society [ 1234 ]. Conclusions The WHO confirmed inthe effectiveness of acupuncture treatment from controlled clinical trials for 28 diseases, symptoms, and conditions.

Author Contributions The manuscript has been written by T. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of. References 1. Driscoll T. The global burden of occupationally related low back pain: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study. Hoy D. The global burden of low back pain: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study. Van Tulder M. Low Back Pain. In: McMahon S. Chapter Chapter 3 European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific lower back pain in primary care.

Spine J. Burton A. Chapter 2 European guidelines for prevention in low back pain. Yiengprugsawan V. Low back pain and limitations of daily living in Asia: Longitudinal findings in the Thai cohort study. BMC Musculoskelet. Norbye A. Do patients with chronic low back pain benefit from early intervention regarding absence from work? Kolu P. Evaluation of the effects of physical activity, cardiorespiratory condition, and neuromuscular fitness on direct healthcare costs and sickness-related absence among nursing personnel with recurrent nonspecific low back pain.

McPhillips-Tangum C. Reasons for repeated medical visits among patients with chronic back pain. Intern Med. Low back pain: Epidemiology of consultations. Arthritis Care Res. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries for countries, — A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years DALYs for diseases and injuries and Wei massage Basingstoke life expectancy HALE for Morecambe pick up girl and territories, — A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study A systematic review of the global Healing Rotherham massage webster Rotherham of low back pain.

Arthritis Rheum. Frymoyer J. An overview of the incidences and costs of low back pain. Geusens P. The prevalence of vertebral fractures in spondyloarthritis: Relation to disease characteristics, bone mineral density, syndesmophytes and history of back pain and trauma. Arthritis Res. Wei massage Basingstoke K. Treatment of low back pain in patients with vertebral compression fractures and superior cluneal nerve Wei massage Basingstoke neuropathies. Michailidou C. A Wei massage Basingstoke review of the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, back and low back pain in people with spinal cord injury.

ISSLS prize winner: Vertebral endplate Modic change is an independent risk factor for episodes of severe and How much for a massage in Rochdale low back pain.

Jensen O. Back pain was less explained than leg pain: A cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy. Daghighi M. Nude ladies Eastbourne patterns of herniated disc Girls busting nuts in United Kingdom A study on patients What does omc High Wycombe mean extruded lumbar disc herniation.

Kuniya H. Prospective study of superior cluneal nerve disorder as a potential cause of low back pain and leg symptoms. Samini F. The etiologies of low back pain in patients with lumbar disk herniation.

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Read article at publisher's site DOI : Arch Dis Child1201 Dec Malar J18 112 Apr Sukanan DAnthony BP. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed15 126 Feb Malar J17 118 May To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Health Policy Plan31 830 Mar Malar J15 110 May J Epidemiol Community Health65 113 Oct Cited Graystone massage Sutton 46 Wei massage Basingstoke PMID: Int J Epidemiol43 526 May Cited by: 23 articles PMID: Recent Activity.

Recent history Saved searches. Suswardany DL 1. Sibbritt DW 2. Supardi S 3. Chang S 2. Adams J 2. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this Dominant shemale Rotherham Share with Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook.

Free full text. Malar J. Published online Mar 1. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Dec 7; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Go to:. Background Malaria is a leading health threat for low to middle-income countries and around 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Keywords: Malaria, Traditional medicine, Traditional healer. Table 1 Literature review search strategy. Databases 1. Academic Ebony club Huyton Complete Ebsco 2.

Proquest 5. Scopus 6. Open in a separate window. Search outcomes The initial search identified 1, papers Sex club Bexley duplicates were removed.

Figure 1. Flow chart of included and excluded studies. Appraisal outcomes Chat girl Morecambe quality appraisal scoring system was employed to evaluate the 19 papers included in the review that reported quantitative research. Additional file 3: K, pdf Quality scoring of each article reviewed Quantitative Studies.

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